Report: APP CMHS Project 4

CSIRO advises that the information contained in this comprises general statements based on scientific research. The reader is advised and needs to be aware that such information may be incomplete or unable to be used in any specific situation. No reliance or actions must therefore be made on that information without seeking prior expert professional, scientific and technical advice. To the extent permitted by law, CSIRO (including its employees and consultants) excludes all liability to any person for any consequences, including but not limited to all losses, damages, costs, expenses and any other compensation, arising directly or indirectly from using this publication (in part or in whole) and any information or material contained in it.

2.1.11. Human Factors

It is imperative to recognise that human error is inherent in any process that involves human intervention. This is not to be condemning but to recognise an obligatory fact of life. Human error is typically due to a slip or lapse, mistake or a violation.

Slips and lapses are due to distraction or loss of concentration and can be due to personal stress, fatigue, boredom or lack of concentration from whatever cause.

Mistakes are due to a lack of competence, i.e. training. Often incorrectly considered a violation, when management consider a person should have known, but management systems have not ensured that they were satisfactorily skilled.

Violations are intentional departures from the required standard and may be cultural or deviant in nature. Cultural violations are enacted by the majority of people – considered short cuts; where as deviant violations are usually extreme and enacted by only a few people.

APPgate Quick Search

APPgate Partners

APPgate is a collaborative effort of many of the coal producing nations of the Asia Pacific Region:






Republic of Korea



©2021 APPgate